2015 issue 1


Volume 31, issue 1

Review article

Multiple sclerosis – new treatment options and hope for the future

Agnieszka Morel1, Elżbieta Miller2, Joanna Saluk1,3
1. Instytut Biochemii Ogólnej Uniwersytetu Łódzkiego, Wydział Biologii i Ochrony Środowiska
2. III Szpital Miejski im. dr. Karola Jonschera w Łodzi, Oddział Rehabilitacji Neurologicznej; Katedra Rehabilitacji Uniwersytetu Medycznego, Zakład Medycyny Fizykalnej
3. Wydział Farmaceutyczny z Oddziałem Analityki Medycznej Akademii Medycznej we Wrocławiu, Zakład Toksykologii
Farmakoterapia w Psychiatrii i Neurologii 2015, 31 (1), 9–28
DOI: http://dx.medra.org/10.17393/fpn.2015.06.001
Keywords: multiple sclerosis, neurodegeneration, pharmacogenetics, cryotherapy


Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic disease of the central nervous system, which a million people are currently suffering from. It is a heterogeneous autoimmune disease with variable clinical courses, a diverse pathophysiological picture which can lead to disturbances in the neurotransmission processes. MS has been known for over a hundred years, and yet the direct cause of the development of the disease is still unknown. Current therapies slow down the progression of MS; however, no effective causal treatment has been developed so far. Do recently new treatment methods constitute hope for the future and will they provide a more effective therapy? Finally, will they increase chances of complete recovery? The purpose of this paper is to present innovative therapies of MS, with special emphasis on injection therapy (interferon β, glatiramer acetate, natalizumab) to reduce inflammatory foci via modulation of the immune system as well as reduction in the frequency of relapses of the disease, limiting the occurrence of severe relapses, delaying disease progress (interferon β, natalizumab), slowing down MS progress by inducing specific suppressor T-cells and inhibiting specific effector T-cells (glatiramer acetate). The necessity of frequent injections is quite uncomfortable for patients with MS; therefore, oral therapy plays an important role as it is best tolerated by patients and it guarantees better therapeutic compliance. The most important first-line oral treatment in MS and include: teriflunomide, dimethyl fumarate, and the second-line treatment – fingolimod. The therapy with the stem cell bandages is recognized as a promising therapeutic method for the patients with secondary progressive form of multiple sclerosis. Pharmacogenetic profiling increases efficacy, reduces toxicity of the drugs and is responsible for the selection of the drugs that are individually customized to a given patient. Cryotherapy, in turn, supports physical therapy and improves the patient's overall functioning.

Address for correspondence:
Agnieszka Morel
Wydział Biologii i Ochrony Środowiska
Katedra Biochemii Ogólnej
ul. Pomorska 141/143, 90-236 Łódź
phone: +48 693 829 398
e-mail: a_g_a@o2.pl