Epidemiological and observational studies have not shown clear association between cholesterol concentration and risk of stroke. However many clinical studies with long use of statins (HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors) in patients with coronary heart disease have shown that statins decrease also stroke incidence. Recent clinical trial with use of simvastatin in elderly persons with a high risk of vascular events (myocardial infarction, stroke, vascular death) confirmed that statins decrease the risk of stroke by 20%. Till now there are no prospective studies showing beneficial role od statins in prevention of stroke recurrence. Hovever it seems rational to use statins for secondary stroke prevention in cases of stroke patients who have high concentration of cholesterol, history of coronoary disease, atherosclerosois of carotid or peripheral arteries or diabetes. Statins have not only antiatherosclerotic properties but also seems to have neuroprotective effect.