Nesfatin-1, a novel NUCB2-derived satiety peptide has a large distribution in numerous neurons of forebrain, hindbrain, brainstem and spinal cord. As a very potent anorexigenic substance seems to play a significant role in hypothalamic circuitries regulating food intake and energy homeostasis. On the other hand nesfatin-1 may be involved in other important brain functions such as sleep, cognition and anxiety- or stress-related responses. Nesfatin-1 is immunohistochemically detectable in arcuate (ARC), paraventricular (PVN) and supraoptic nuclei (SON), where the peptide is colocalized with POMC/CART, NPY, oxytocin and vasopressin. Nesfatin-1 interacts with a G-protein coupled receptor, its physiological effect depends on inhibitory hyperpolarization of NPY/AgRP neurons in ARC and melanocortin signaling in PVN. Administration of nesfatin-1 significantly inhibits consumatory behaviour and decreases weight gain in experimental animals. However, the details of nesfatin-1 physiology ought to be clarified, it will be useful in future as a potential drug in pharmacotherapy of obesity in patients treated with antipsychotics and antidepressants. Perhaps some putative nesfatin-1 antagonists may improve eating disorders e.g. anorexia nervosa.