2003, volume 19, issue 4


Influence of dexamethasone on inflammatory reaction and degeneration of dopaminergic neurons in MPTP mice model of Parkinson s disease

Tomasz Litwin, Iwona Kurkowska-Jastrzębska, Agnieszka Ciesielska, Ilona Joniec, Adam Przybyłkowski
Farmakoterapia w Psychiatrii i Neurologii, 2003, 4, 5-20

The authors evaluate the effect of steroids in the mice model of Parkinson’s disease, based on chromatography, Western-blotting and immunohistochemistry. They observed neuroprotective effect of dexamethasone in dose l mg per kilogram body weight. The presume that this effect is associated with anti-inflammatory effect of steroids.


Increased serum levels of immune complexes (IC) and the presence of antigens of Chlamydia pneumoniae and Cytomegalovirus in IC in patients with ischemic stroke

Beata Tarnacka, Grażyna Gromadzka, Anna Członkowska
Farmakoterapia w Psychiatrii i Neurologii, 2003, 4, 21-39

The mechanisms of immune reaction involved in the pathogenesis and clinical course of acute vascular incidents are still not completely understood. The aim of this study was to examine the presence of immune complexes (IC) in the acute stroke setting and the first month thereafter and to characterize IC by analyzing the contents of chlamydial lipopolysaccharide and anti-cytomegalovirus (CMV) antibodies in IC.
Serum concentration of IC was investigated in 179 stroke patients, 122 "old" controls and 112 "young" controls, by the precipitation method. The presence of chlamydial lipopolisaccharyde and anti-CMV antibodies was investigated in some IC preparations by the ELISA method after earlier dissociation of IC into components by high pH treatment.
Significantly increased serum Je concentration in stroke patients was noticed. Increased serum IC concentration was revealed as an independent strong stroke risk factor and was connected with significantly worse neurological status and increased 30-day mortality rate. A significantly larger proportion of stroke patients than controls had Chlamydia pneumoniae antigen and anti-CMV antibodies in IC.
This study provides the first evidence of an association between increased serum level of IC and the clinical course of cerebral ischemia and identifies a potentially important association of C. pneumoniae and CMV-specific IC with stroke incidence.


8-Hydroxy-2’-deoxyguanosine in neurodegenerative diseases of aged

Jolanta Dorszewska, Zofia Adamczewska-Goncerzewicz, Wojciech Kozubski, Jolanta Florczak
Farmakoterapia w Psychiatrii i Neurologii, 2003, 4, 41-48

The aim of the study was to reveal the systematic structural changes in Alzheimer disease (AD) and Parkinson’s disease (PD).
8-oxo-2’-deoxyguanosine (8-oxo2dG) a marker of oxidative stress in DNA was measured in lymphocytes of AD and PD patients, and healthy controls using HPLC/EC/UV (high-pressure liquid chromatography with electrochemical and UV detections).
The content of 8-oxo2dG in lymphocytes of AD and PD patients was significantly higher than in age-matched controls. The increase of 8-oxo2dG content in the group aged 24-64 years was statistically insignificant.


Asymptomatic severe carotid stenosis in neuroradiological and psychological estimation

Agnieszka Strepikowska, Andrzej Tutaj
Farmakoterapia w Psychiatrii i Neurologii, 2003, 4, 49-57

The aim of the study is to present the analysis of classical head CT, Single Photon Emission CT imaging and neuropsychological tests in patients with asymptomatic internal carotid artery stenosis. A group of 10 patients was analysed. There were 3 female and 7 males aged 44-69 years (mean 61.6). In all patients high grade stenosis (above 60%) of ICA was diagnosed by using Doppler Ultrasonography. Enrolled patients had an asymptomatic course of the stenosis, they had no history of cerebral stroke or TIA incidents the neurological examination was normal in all cases. Performed CT imaging’s showed ischemic foci in 4 patients, SPECT confirmed focal disturbances of cerebral blood flow (reduced uptake or cumulation defect of marker) in 90% of cases. In the psychological assessment changes in cognitive functions were revealed in 70% of the patients. These findings suggest that asymptomatic internal carotid artery stenosis could lead to cerebral circulation insufficiency and it may be a significant factor in processes of lesions and senescence of human brain.


Melatonine, antypical antyoxidant – role in Alzheimere’s disease – possible therapeutical use

Katarzyna Gustaw
Farmakoterapia w Psychiatrii i Neurologii, 2003, 4, 59-69

Multiply aetiology has been proposed for Alzheimer’s disease. Besides hereditary, contagious hereditary, dietary and environmental factors are proposed. Neurohormones seem to play an important role in Alzheimer's disease pathology. Moreover, deficiency of melatonin is postulated to be important for the development of Alzheimer's disease. Melatonin is carried to the ventricular system via choroid plexus some of neurohormone is secreted directly into the cerebro-spinal fluid. The neurohormone is a potent antioxidant of an original mode of action. In Alzheimer's disease, inadequate melatonin allows hydroxyl radicals damage mitochondria and initiate a cascade of oxygen radicals that causes the neuropathological changes in Alzheimer's disease. Thus melatonin pathway can have role in neurodegenerative changes in the brain. Besides melatonin can have a role in the treatment of Alzheimer's disease.


Enantiomers and their role in psychopharmacology with special emphasis on escitalopram

Małgorzata Zienowicz, Aleksandra Wisłowska, Danuta Turzyńska, Adam Płaźnik
Farmakoterapia w Psychiatrii i Neurologii, 2003, 4, 71-83

The artice discusses the role of chiral drugs in the modem pharmacology. We describe differences in the receptor affinity, the pharmacokinetics, the efficacy and adverse effects between single enantiomers of exemplary drugs with special emphasis put on drugs used in psychopharmacology e.g. escitalopram, S-enantiomer of citalopram. Escitalopram, the most selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor on the market, was introduced to the clinic for the treatment of depression and panic disorder in 2001. The article explains the mechanism of action and pharmacokinetic profile of escitalopram in detail. Moreover, we present the data from preclinical and clinical studies indicating the antidepressant potential and efficacy of escitalopram.


Pharmacogenomics of lithium in bipolar affective illness

Aleksandra Suwalska, Janusz Rybakowski
Farmakoterapia w Psychiatrii i Neurologii, 2003, 4, 85-93

Mechanism of action of lithium – mood-noralizing drug which efficacy in bipolar affective disorder is best established-includes influence on transmembrane ion transport, on neurotransmission, especially serotonergic and dopaminergic, second messenger systems, and neuronal plasticity. In the article, the review of studies on the association between lithium prophylaxis in bipolar affective illness and polymorphism of genes candidates involved in the above processes has been presented.


The effect of donepezil on working memory disturbances in Alzheimer’s disease

Alina Borkowska, Monika Wiłkość, Janusz Rybakowski
Farmakoterapia w Psychiatrii i Neurologii, 2003, 4, 95-101

Neuropsychological tests measuring working memory were performed in 78 patients with Alzheimer’s disease (55 – mild dementia, 23 – moderate dementia), before and after three-month treatment with donepezil. Working memory disturbances of similar severity were found in patients with either mild or moderate dementia what suggest that these disturbances (with other cognitive deficits) may occur in early stages of the disease. Traetment with donepezil caused an improvement of working memory disturbances measured with some tests and this effect was slightly better in patients with mild dementia.


Phospholipase A2 (PLA2) platelet activity in the patient with neurodegenerative diseases

Ewa Krzystanek, Grzegorz Opala, Stanisław Ochudło, Henryk I. Trzeciak, Barbara Jasińska-Myga
Farmakoterapia w Psychiatrii i Neurologii, 2003, 4, 103-113

Phospholipase A2 (E.C., PLA2) is a key enzyme responsible for membrane phospholipid turnover. There are some findings that PLA2 participates in central nervous system pathology (e.g. multiple sclerosis, epilepsy and Alzheimer's disease). Our purpose was to estimate PLA2 activity in patients with Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease and vascular dementia, using human platelets as a peripheral model of neuron. Material and Methods: The examined group consisted of 15 patients with Alzheimer’s disease, 13 with vascular dementia and 10 with Parkinson’s disease. The control group consisted of 15 healthy people. Human platelets were sonificated, than PLA2 activity was measured performed according to Jelsema as well as Strosznajder and Strosznajder with slight modifications. The Student t-test was used for statistical evaluation of the data. Results: PLA2 activity in blood platelets of patients with Alzheimer's disease was 1.05 ± 0.44 (nmol/mg/min, mean ± SD), with Parkinson’s disease 0.67 ± 0.3, and in platelets of the patients with vascular dementia 0.78 ± 0.39. The activity in platelets of the control was 0.39 ± 0.13. Conclusion: Activity of platelet PLA2 is increased in patients with Alzheimer's dementia, Parkinson's disease and vascular dementia.


Pharmacological and clinical properties of opipramol in the light of new studies

Jan Jaracz, Janusz Rybakowski
Farmakoterapia w Psychiatrii i Neurologii, 2003, 4, 115-121

In this review paper, new data regarding pharmacological and clinical properties of opipramol are presented. Results of animal studies suggest that this drug is a potent ligand of sigma-l and sigma-2 receptors, resulting in increasing dopaminergic neurotransmission and in anxiolytic effects.
These effects were confirmed using animal models of anxiety. Two clinical studies demonstrated that opipramol is effective and safe in patients suffering from both generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) and somatoform disorders. The drug is well tolerated and does not cause withdrawal effects. Therefore, opipramol seems to be an interesting alternative for benzodiazepines in pharmacological treatment of some patients with stress related disorders and somatoform disorders.