The results of a long term (7 months) clinical trial evaluating efficacy and safety of risperidone in treatment of schizophrenia are presented (DSM-3-R). The study was conducted in 14 clinical centers in Poland; 193 patients aged 15-65 years were enrolled. Efficacy parameters were estimated in PANSS (total and subscales) and CGI. Safety was assessed by analysis of vital signs, clinical laboratory tests, ECG, adverse events and extrapyramidal symptoms by means of the ESRS. The result s of the study confirmed high efficacy of risperidone in the treatment of positive and negative symptoms of schizophrenia. Low incidences of adverse events, particularly extrapyramidal symptoms, prove good safety and tolerability profile of risperidone.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the efficacy of risperidon. The authors examined 35 schizophrenic patients. After 6 months clinical improvement was shown in 22 patients (63% of the examined patients), and after 12 months clinical improvement was shown in 15 patients (43% of the examined patients). Risperidon was the drug of choice for 9 patients (60% of patients with improvement). The incidence of extrapyramidal side effects was slight and dose-related.
For many years cognitive functions in schizophrenic patients have been a subject of interest for neuropsychology. Attention deficits which affect all cognitive functions in humans, and working memory disturbances are of particular importance. Besides worse results obtained by schizophrenic patients in neuropsychological tests with respect to healthy controls, neuroimaging studies revealed anatomical and structural disturbances in various regions of their brains, particularly in the frontal region, prefrontal cortex and medial temporal region.
The comparison of anxiety models used in animals to clinical syndromes of anxiety and stress is difficult, because the evaluation of emotional states of animals is subjective and prone to differing interactions.
The experimental models of anxiety can be divided depending on the method used into Punishment Induced Suppression Tests and Novelty Induced Inhibition. The Two Compartment Exploratory Test of Crawley has proved to be a very sensitive test for drugs with different action mechanisms and confirmed usefulness in human anxiety diseases.
This paper presents essential patobiochemical objectives and clinical problems and results concerning the treatment of parkinsonian patients with two COMT inhibitors: entacapone and tolcapone. In November 1998, due to increased hepatotoxicity, tolcapone was withdrawn from the market.
Ethanol inhibits the function of the glutamate NMDA receptors in the central nervous system. This action contributes to some of the acute central effects of ethanol, for example: amnestic, anticonvulsant or neuroprotective activity. Chronic ethanol exposure results in up-regulation of the NMDA receptors. Overactivity of the glutamatergic neurotransmission after cessation of chronic alcohol treatment is implicated in the occurrence of seizures and neuronal damage during ethanol withdrawal. Moreover, NMDA receptors may be involved in reinforcing properties of ethanol.